2016年10月1日土曜日

ミルトン・エリクソンの叡智


                                                                                                                             
 この本、邦訳されているのか?は知らないけれど

 目次が含蓄のある格言みたいになっていて名著なんだよなぁ。

 <ひとりごと>



プラグマティックな薀蓄は役に立つ・・・・

  備忘録として書いておく。

コトバは認識の前提を変える》別に心理療法やっているわけでも、やりたいわけではないが、心理療法家のミルトン・エリクソンは暗黙的な哲学なところから具体的な技法のところまで非常に興味がある。カリフォルニア州パロアルトのMRIの研究者はエリクソンの技法を、主に、①戦略的な側面(現状→理想の道筋)と②相互のコミュニケーション(自己間、および対人間)に還元して研究した。これは、①はコンサルティングやプロジェクト・マネジメントの手法に共通することであるし、②は、『コトバや表情のやりとりのアヤ、人とひととの力関係』だから、どこへ行っても普遍なことであることには間違いない。案外、自分が興味を持つ理由は、この2つに関係しているように思えてくる。

 エリクソンは非常に含蓄の深いことを言っているように思えることがある。もちろん、コトバにすればたわいもないものだが、それが、生活上あるいは仕事上の問題を抱えている状況にある時に、そのコトバが、いつもの認識とは違う前提になり、ふとヒラメキのようなものをもたらすことがあるのも事実だ。

 敢えて、例をあげるならば、「全ての人はひとり一人が唯一無二の存在だ」とか「実験は学習の源だ」とか「現実の制約から学べ」とか、こんなことだ。

 仕事の場面で効率を考えると色々な人を《十把一からげ》で考えてしまう。あるいは、タイプ分けのようなことしてもせいぜい3、4つだ。逆にここで、ひとりひとりは違っているし、マスプロ的な制約を考えながらも、もっと一人ひとりにフォーカスすることができないか?と考えると認識も打ち手の仮説も随分違ってくることに気づく。また、頭だけで考えているとどうしても煮詰まってくる。現場へ行って、観察を繰り返し、失敗してもよい小さな実験をやってみることで、そもそも問題の認識自体がずれていた、というようなことに気づくこともある。また、制約もそれをよく観察すると、《邪魔者》から《資源・資質》として活用できるリソースに変わるという具合だ。

スティーブ・ヘイバンズの編集》「The Wisdom of Milton H. Erickson 」[1]の2005年版は結構お勧めだ。元々 1989年に出版された著作だが、英国クラウンハウス出版より復刻された著作となる。



 目次[2]を読んでいるだけでも、自分の頭の中でエリクソンが語りかけてくるように錯覚するセンスの良さを感じるのだが、内容も結構読みやすいこなれた表現になっている。


Preface to the Complete Volume ...................................................................v
Acknowledgement .........................................................................................vii
Preface ................................................................................................................xi
An Introduction to Milton H. Erickson, MD ............................................xv
How and Why This Book was Created ....................................................xxv
Part One: Human Behavior
.............................................................................1
Chapter One
Objective Observation Yields Wisdom ...............................3
Observations Regarding the Influence of Breathing
Patterns  ...................................................................................6
Observations Regarding Learning About One’s Body
.....7
Observations Regarding the Meaning of Words ............10
Observations Regarding Nonverbal Communication ....11
Observations Regarding Physiological and Behavioral
Patterns  .................................................................................11
Observations Regarding Cultural Differences  ...............12
Relevant Quotations  ...........................................................14
Summary  ..............................................................................20
Chapter Two
The Conscious Mind............................................................23
Every Person is Unique  .....................................................23
The Primary Joy of Life is Freedom  .................................25
Experience is the Source of Learning ...............................26
The Importance of Expectation and Reward ..................29
Integrating With Reality  ....................................................30
Learning the Constraints of Reality  .................................32
Building a Frame of Reference ..........................................33
Language Development .....................................................35
Rigidity and Non-objectivity of Conscious Frames of
Reference  ..............................................................................37
Complexity of Conscious Frames of Mind  .....................38
Summary  ..............................................................................40
Chapter Three
The Unconscious Mind .......................................................41
The Reality of the Unconscious  ........................................42
The Separate Abilities of the Unconscious  .....................43
The Unconscious is a Storehouse  .....................................50
The Unconscious is Unknown Potentials  .......................54
The Unconscious is Brilliant ..............................................56
The Unconscious is Aware  ................................................57
The Unconscious Perceives and Responds Literally  .....59
The Unconscious is Childlike  ...........................................61
The Unconscious is the Source of Emotions ...................62
The Unconscious is Universal ...........................................62
Summary  ..............................................................................64
Chapter Four
Normalcy and Pathology....................................................67
What is Abnormal?  .............................................................68
Conscious Sources of Abnormality  ..................................70
Rigidity of Abnormality .....................................................72
The Protection of Abnormality  .........................................74
Forms of Abnormality ........................................................77
Minimizing Abnormality  ...................................................80
Summary  ..............................................................................84
Part Two: Psychotherapy
...............................................................................85
Chapter Five
The Goal of Psychotherapy ................................................89
Focus on the Possible, Not on Perfection ........................89
Focus on the Future, Not on the Past  ..............................91
Objectivity Cures  ................................................................94
Objectivity Requires Reorganization  ...............................95
Only Experiences Can Initiate Reorganization  ............100
Behavior Generates Experiences  ....................................102
Patients Can and Must Do the Therapy ........................104
Summary  ............................................................................108
Chapter Six
Creating a Psychotherapeutic Climate ...........................109
Therapists Provide Therapeutic Climates .....................109
Therapists Provide Motivation  .......................................112
Therapists Solicit Trust and Cooperation  ......................113
Therapists Recognize and Accept Each Patient’s
Limitations  .........................................................................115
Patients Are Ambivalent About Therapy  ......................117
Patients Are Unreliable Sources  .....................................120
Therapists Must Decipher What Patients Say  ..............122
Therapists Must Acknowledge the Patient’s Reality  ..126
Therapists Protect Patients  ..............................................129
Therapists Must Give Freedom to Patients  ..................130
The Patient’s Welfare is the Only Concern  ...................132
Summary  ............................................................................136
Chapter Seven
Initiating Therapeutic Change .........................................139
Unique People Require Unique Interventions  .............140
Use Whatever the Patient Presents  ................................147
Use the Patient’s Desires and Expectations  ..................152
Use the Patient’s Language  .............................................153
Use the Patient’s Emotions ..............................................155
Use the Patient’s Resistance  ............................................157
Use the Patient’s Symptoms ............................................158
Use Your Own Observations ...........................................160
Summary  ............................................................................161
Part Three: Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy
................................................165
Chapter Eight
Understanding Hypnosis  ................................................169
Trance Involves Focused Attention ................................169
Reality is Less Important in Trance ................................172
Attention Turns Inward During Trance  ........................173
Subjects Respond to Internal Realities  ..........................174
Hypnosis Facilitates Rapport  ..........................................178
Hypnosis Facilitates Responsiveness .............................178
Subjects Create Internal Realities Via Vivification .......180
Hypnosis Offers Access to Unused Potentials  .............182
Hypnosis Does Not Create New Abilities  ....................184
Hypnotized Subjects Are Not Automatons  ..................186
Trance is Manifested in a Variety of Ways  ....................190
Deep Trance Involves the Unconscious .........................191
Subjects Become Childlike and Literal in
Deep Trance  .......................................................................195
Somnambulism and Post-Hypnotic Suggestions .........197
Physiological and Perceptual Alterations  .....................199
Summary  ............................................................................202
Chapter Nine
Inducing Hypnosis: General Considerations  ...............205
Anyone Can Be Hypnotized  ...........................................205
Hypnosis Requires the Right Atmosphere  ...................207
Hypnosis Depends Upon Cooperation  .........................209
Subjects Create Hypnosis  ................................................211
Hypnosis Must Be Tailored  .............................................214
Use Whatever the Subject Presents  ................................218
Use Language to Elicit Responses ..................................221
Communication with the Unconscious  .........................226
Summary  ............................................................................230
Chapter Ten
Inducing Hypnosis: Specific Techniques  ......................231
Keep Your Role and Goal in Mind  .................................231
Fixate Attention  .................................................................233
Direct Attention Away from Reality  ..............................237
Direct Attention Internally  ..............................................239
Use Ideomotor Responses  ...............................................243
Use Demonstrations and Simulations  ...........................246
Use Boredom or Surprise  ................................................248
Use Confusion  ...................................................................249
Create a Conscious/Unconscious Dissociation  ...........257
Allow Plenty of Time  .......................................................258
Maintain the Trance  ..........................................................264
Maintain a Belief in Success  ............................................265
Get Subjects to Do It  .........................................................267
Summary  ............................................................................271
Chapter Eleven
Utilizing Hypnosis Therapeutically: General
Considerations  ..................................................................273
Hypnosis is Only a Tool ...................................................273
Hypnosis Increases Access to Potentials  .......................277
Hypnosis Helps Overcome Conscious Barriers  ...........283
Hypnosis Facilitates Learning  ........................................287
Hypnosis Allows Unconscious Psychotherapy  ...........292
Allow Unconscious Psychotherapy to Remain
Unconscious .......................................................................299
Summary  ............................................................................307
Chapter Twelve
Utilizing Hypnosis Therapeutically: Specific
Techniques  .........................................................................309
Ideomotor Responses  .......................................................309
Projection Into the Future  ................................................314
Revivification .....................................................................320
Dissociation ........................................................................324
Amnesias  ............................................................................331
Pain Control  .......................................................................336
Terminating a Trance  ........................................................340
Summary  ............................................................................344
Chapter Thirteen
Becoming a Hypnotherapist  ..............................................347
Overcoming Skeptics ........................................................347
Increasing Awareness  .......................................................350
Increasing Flexibility  ........................................................351
Experiencing Hypnosis  ....................................................353
Utilizing Autohypnosis  ....................................................357
Exceptions  ..........................................................................360
Overview Summary and Conclusion  ............................360
References.......................................................................................................365

Index ................................................................................................................377

 
(つづく)

文献
[1]https://www.amazon.co.jp/Wisdom-Milton-H-Erickson-Complete/dp/1904424961/
[2]https://www.crownhouse.co.uk/assets/look-inside/9781904424963.pdf

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